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Communications over the world wide doesnt depend on sytax or eloquence or rethoric or articulation but on the emotional context in which the message is being heard.
People can only hear you when they are moving toward you and they are not likely to when your wordss are pursuing them
Even the choices words lose their powe when they are used to overpower.
Attitudes are the real figures of speech '-Friedman

Wednesday, December 21, 2011

Outlook for the global economy 2012




 The outlook for the global economy in 2012 is clear, but it isn’t pretty: recession in Europe, anemic growth at best in the United States, and a sharp slowdown in China and in most emerging-market economies. Asian economies are exposed to China. Latin America is exposed to lower commodity prices (as both China and the advanced economies slow). Central and Eastern Europe are exposed to the eurozone. And turmoil in the Middle East is causing serious economic risks – both there and elsewhere – as geopolitical risk remains high and thus high oil prices will constrain global growth.

 The world’s financial markets are on the brink, and 2012 could result in the global economy turning a corner — or crumbling, experts said on Saturday.
During a panel discussion at The Economist’s World in 2012festival, former U.S. Treasury secretary Robert Rubin, Morgan Stanley CFO Ruth Porat and Brookings Institute fellow Eswar Prasad agreed that 2012 would be the year that defines the path that the U.S., European Union and emerging economies for the next decade.
What they disagreed on was the likelihood of each option.
First, the United States. Rubin said he believes that there is “a material likelihood” of major government action on fiscal matters in the short period of time after the U.S. presidential election.
“If major action does occur, it is more than likely that it will be reasonably constructive in terms of mainstream agenda,” he said. “Though it is certainly possible it could be otherwise.”
The direct relationship between the success of business, citizens and politicians suggests that it’s more than likely that common ground for “fiscal rectitude” can be found, Rubin said.
Why? Rubin offered four reasons:
  1. A bevy of events scheduled to occur at the end of 2012 and in early 2013 will be a major political and financial problem unless addressed, including the expiration of middle class tax cuts, sequestration, a possible payroll tax holiday and the reaching of the U.S. debt ceiling. If they all occur, the estimated fiscal demand will be reduced by four to five percent.
  2. Continued economic duress could increase political pressure to act.
  3. The 2012 election itself will produce impacts, “whatever they may be.”
  4. A post-election period will increase political will to address the issues.

Tuesday, December 13, 2011

Decisions taken in the Summit Burssels Metting ; Europe moves ahead with fiscal union, UK isolated



Fri, Dec 9th, 2011 8:06 pm BdST
BRUSSELS, Dec 9 (bdnews24.com/Reuters) - Europe divided on Friday in a historic rift over building a closer fiscal union to preserve the euro, with an overwhelming majority of countries led by Germany and France agreeing to forge ahead with a separate treaty, leaving the EU's third biggest economy Britain isolated.

The outcome of a two-day European Union summit left financial markets uncertain whether and when more decisive action would be taken to stem a debt crisis that began in Greece, spread to Portugal, Ireland, Italy and Spain and now threatens France and even economic powerhouse Germany.

A new treaty could take three months to negotiate and may require referendums in some countries. Two ECB sources told Reuters the European Central Bank would keep purchases of euro zone government bonds capped for now and not take extra action. Debt markets were wary. Interbank lending rates eased but Italian 10-year bond yields remained around 6.5 percent.

Twenty-six of the 27 EU leaders agreed to pursue tighter integration with stricter budget discipline in the single currency area, but Britain said it could not accept proposed EU treaty amendments after failing to secure concessions.

After 10 hours of talks that ran into the early hours of Friday, all 17 members of the euro zone and nine countries that aspire to join resolved to negotiate a new agreement alongside the EU treaty with a tougher deficit and debt regime to avoid a repetition of the debt crisis in future.

The nine non-euro states said they would consult their parliaments, where appropriate, on taking part in the process. After a long night of wrangling, Britain's few allies melted away in the Brussels dawn.

"Not Europe, Brits divided. And they are outside of decision making. Europe is united," Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskaite said in blunt English.

One senior EU diplomat called British Prime Minister David Cameron's negotiating tactics "clumsy". Among other issues, he had sought a right to veto a proposed financial transaction tax, which may be voted through by a majority over the objections of the City of London financial centre.

ECB President Mario Draghi called the decision a step forward for the stricter budget rules he has said are necessary for the euro zone to emerge stronger from the turmoil.

"It's going to be the basis for a good fiscal compact and more discipline in economic policy in the euro area members," Draghi said. "We came to conclusions that will have to be fleshed out more in the coming days."

Two ECB sources said the bank's governing council decided on Thursday to keep bond buying limited to around 20 billion euros a week and there was no need to review the decision in the light of the summit outcome.

"You will see some further purchases but not the huge bazooka that some people in the markets and the media are awaiting," one central banker told Reuters on condition of anonymity.

But French President Nicolas Sarkozy told reporters the ECB's move to provide unlimited three-year funds to cash-starved European banks would be more effective, by enabling them to continue buying government bonds.

"This means that each state can turn to its banks, which will have liquidity at their disposal," he said.


"SEETHES, SULKS, GLOATS"

German Chancellor Angela Merkel said she was satisfied with the decisions. The world would see that Europe had learned from its mistakes and avoided "lousy compromise", she said.

Europe's most powerful leader said she had not given up hope that Britain would eventually agree to change the EU treaty to anchor stricter budget discipline, with automatic sanctions for deficit offenders.

Sarkozy sounded elated at having united a big group around the euro zone as the EU's core, long a French objective.

"This is a summit that will go down in history," he said. "We would have preferred a reform of the treaties among 27. That wasn't possible given the position of our British friends. And so it will be through an intergovernmental treaty of 17, but open to others."

One EU diplomat summed up the outcome as: "Britain seethes, Germany sulks, and France gloats."

Active ECB support will be vital in the coming days with markets doubting the strength of Europe's financial firewalls to protect vulnerable economies such as Italy and Spain, which have to roll over hundreds of billions of euros in debt next year.

Irish Europe Minister Lucinda Creighton said Dublin and many other member states expect the central bank to take a more pro-active approach to the debt crisis in the weeks ahead. Traders said the ECB bought Italian bonds on Friday to steady markets.

Creighton also said there was a 50/50 chance that Ireland would have to hold a referendum on ratifying a fiscal union treaty. Irish voters have rejected EU treaties twice in the last decade in plebiscites, holding up their entry into force, only to reverse their vote later under strong European pressure.

Voters in any referendum this time will cast their ballots in the knowledge that Ireland is receiving an EU bailout, and that it will not be able to prevent other countries going ahead without it.

The euro rallied in Europe but analysts said the summit had done little to convince markets that a solution to the crisis was at hand. Asked if the euro was safe now, Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk said: "I'm not sure."

BRITAIN OUTSIDE?

Merkel and French President Nicolas Sarkozy had wanted to get the whole EU to agree to change the Lisbon treaty so that automatic sanctions to back budget and debt rules for eurozone states could be enshrined in the bloc's basic law.

But Britain, which is outside the euro zone, refused to back the move, demanding guarantees in a protocol protecting its financial services industry, roughly one-tenth of the country's economy. Sarkozy described Cameron's demand as unacceptable.

Cameron hinted London may now try to prevent the others from using the executive European Commission and the European Court of Justice, saying: "Clearly the institutions of the European Union belong to the European Union, they belong to the 27."

The rift may increase pressure from Eurosceptics within Cameron's Conservative party and outside it for Britain to hold a referendum on leaving the EU, which it joined in 1973. The prime minister strongly opposes such a course, which he has said would be disastrous for British interests. Britain conducts more than half of its trade within the EU and would suffer economically if it lost its priviliged access to the single market.

Herman Van Rompuy, the president of the European Council and the summit chairman, focused on the success in securing agreement for tighter fiscal limits, including the need for countries to bring budgets close to balance.

"It means reinforcing our rules on excessive deficit procedures by making them more automatic. It also means that member states would have to submit their draft budgetary plans to the (European) Commission," Van Rompuy said.

"An inter-governmental treaty can be approved and ratified much more rapidly than a full-fledged treaty change, and I think speed is also very important to enhance credibility," he said.

But it could still take months of wrangling, with countries like Finland and Slovakia opposing a Franco-German drive to take decisions on future bailouts by an 85 percent supermajority to avoid being taken hostage by a single small country.

Wednesday, December 7, 2011

INTEL , 4G WiMAX Development

Experience 4GWiMAX
Enjoy thhe convenience of Internet broadband all around town at speeds up to four times faster than 3G.1 With 4G WiMAX, you get fast, easy access to blazing high-speed mobile performance so you can interact with friends, stream videos quickly, and download or upload large files in a flash.


Take advantage of the smart performance of a 2nd gen Intel® Core™ processor inside a laptop equipped with ultra-fast 4G WiMAX wireless technology, and you'll have access where you want it for great online HD entertainment, keeping in touch with friends, and staying productive on the go. So, stop worrying about where you'll connect from and start getting excited about what you'll connect to!1



Smart performance, Ultra-fast connectivity.

4G WiMAX gives you incredibly fast wireless access to the internet – from four to ten times faster than 3G wireless – for your PCs and all the devices you use, in your home and wherever you go around the city. With 2nd generation Intel® Core™ processors and 4G WiMAX, say goodbye to hotspots and hello to smart performance with ultra-fast connectivity.

An industry solution to fast, wireless broadband everywhere

WiMAX is an industry standard, called IEEE 802.16e. Many WiMAX providers, technology companies, certification and testing laboratories, and software developers from around the world form the WiMAX Forum. The Forum is a not-for-profit organization created to standardize and promote the expansion of WiMAX technology.
Intel is a founding member of the WiMAX Forum and committed to its expansion, working with global providers and developers, and engineering products for WiMAX.
Learn how WiMAX works in this demo and in this white paper.
Learn about other wireless technologies and products.
Check out these WiMAX products and initiatives:
Make sure your next PC or laptop is WiMAX equipped, and get incredibly fast internet access at home and on the go.

Meeting in Brussels EU Heads of State on Dec 9th


The EU Heads of State or Government will meet in Brussels on 8-9 December to discuss the economic situation in Europe. The European Council will also discuss energy issues and ways to promote growth. Prime Minister Jyrki Katainen will represent Finland at the meeting.
The European Council meeting will be prepared at the General Affairs Council convening in Brussels on 5 December. Minister for European Affairs and Foreign Trade Alexander Stubb will represent Finland at the General Affairs Council. Foreign Minister Erkki Tuomioja will attend the meeting when it is dealing with enlargement. In addition to preparatory work on the European Council, the General Affairs Council will discuss the proposal for the EU's multiannual financial framework 2014-2020 and EU enlargement on the basis of the annual enlargement package.
In line with the June and October European Councils, the December meeting will focus on economic growth and measures to support employment in the EU countries. Special attention will be paid to Internal Market sectors with the strongest growth potential, such as the Digital Single Market.

Wednesday, November 16, 2011

Smart Tv and Internet Connectable Google TV

On 2011, Sony Smart TV KDL46Nx720 LED HDTV 46 inch will be discounted on Black Friday. This year, Black Friday deals on November 25, and start on November 21. Now...




In the home theater world, there are now many options for getting Internet content onto your HDTV. This is an exciting development, but it means the world of TV is getting more complicated. Which product is the right one for you to buy? How do you connect your system to the Internet? 


With the introduction of Google TV, there might also be confusion between "smart TV" and "Internet Connectable" products. This FAQ will help address the basic differences.



What do smart TV and Internet Connectable products have in common?





Smart TV and Internet Connectable products both allow you to view content from the Internet on your HDTV through specialized apps (Netflix*, Napster, Facebook, etc.). Usually, you will access them through a menu page of icons.
These apps are designed to work specifically and very smoothly with the television experience. Each product has its own specialized list of available apps. While some may offer access to Facebook, for example, others may not.  

Is a Web browser included? Can I search the Internet?





Smart TV: In most cases, this will probably be the biggest difference between the two categories. Smart TV products like Google TV include a web browser and keyboard, so you can browse, search and type in content online using your HDTV, just as you do with your computer. They also feature significant processing power, which allows them to perform integrated searches across both Web and TV (see the next question for more info).


Internet Connectable: Most of these products do not come with a Web browser, so you cannot search the Internet. Instead, online content is accessed via a set of apps that are included with the product. In the near future, a small number of Internet Connectable products will include a Web browser with limited functionality.

Can I search for specific video content?




Smart TV: Yes, there is a robust and cleverly integrated search capability. Type in the name of a favorite program, hit Search and quickly see the time and channel the program is on, any DVR recordings*, plus any video content that's available on the Internet. You can then select any available program right from your search results.


Internet Connectable: There is a limited ability to search for video content within some specific apps. For example, within the YouTube app, you can use your remote to type in a search term and relevant videos will be returned.

What kinds of smart TV and Internet Connectable products can I purchase?




Smart TV: Google TV is the only smart TV product that is currently available. Sony has released HDTVs and a Blu-ray player that have Google TV built in. Additionally, Logitech has released a stand-alone Google TV box that can work with any HDTV.


Internet Connectable: There is a wide range of products that have this capability, including HDTVs, Blu-ray players, home theater systems, gaming systems and TiVo.


Thursday, October 27, 2011

Intel Ceo Otellini growing new market segments


Ultra-elegante
Intel’s President and CEO, Paul Otellini, made the announcements during the opening keynote of the Intel Developer Forum in San Francisco.
“Computing is in a constant state of evolution,” said Otellini, describing the opportunities and challenges facing Intel and the industry. “The unprecedented demand for computing from the client devices to the cloud is creating significant opportunity for the industry. Intel is innovating and working with our partners to deliver computing experiences that are more mobile, secure and seamless. I’m excited about the new experiences that will be created across a range of devices, and we’re just getting started.”
Growth in New Market Segments
Addressing a major corporate goal of growing Intel’s business in adjacent computing market segments, Otellini discussed the company’s recent efforts to accelerate its smartphone business and showcased a form factor reference design based on Intel® Atom™ processor, and running the Android™ platform.
Otellini then introduced Andy Rubin, Senior Vice President of Mobile at Google*. The two executives outlined plans to enable and optimize future releases of the Android™ platform for Intel’s family of low power Atom™ processors. The joint effort is designed to speed time-to-market of Intel technology-based smartphones running the Android platform.
“Our collaboration with Google will bring a powerful new capability to market that helps accelerate industry innovation, adoption and choice,” said Otellini. “I’m excited by the possibilities of this collaboration. It will enable our customers to bring exciting new products and user experiences to market that harness the combined potential of Intel architecture and the Android platform.”
Today’s announcement builds upon the two companies’ recent joint initiatives to enable Intel architecture on Google products. Joint initiatives include Chrome OS, Google TV, and the Android Software Development Kit (SDK) and Native Development Kit (NDK).
Pushing the Limits of Low Power for Ultrabooks™ and Beyond
Otellini predicted that Ultrabook systems will provide the most satisfying and complete computing experience. The company is working with industry partners to deliver mainstream-priced products beginning this holiday season for this new category of lighter, sleeker compute companions.
Intel’s CEO said the company’s engineers will further accelerate Ultrabook innovation with Intel’s “Ivy Bridge” 22nm technology early next year with the help of the company’s revolutionary 3-D Tri-gate transistors.
He highlighted the broad enabling work between Intel and Microsoft, and pointed to the future opportunities that Windows 8 will present across tablets, hybrid devices and new form factors such as Ultrabooks™.
Otellini also described the new class of platform power management in development for the 2013 “Haswell” products for Ultrabooks. The advances in silicon technology and platform engineering are expected to reduce idle platform power by more than 20 times over current designs without compromising computing performance. Otellini said he expects that this design change, combined with industry collaboration, will lead to more than 10 days of connected standby battery life by 2013. The advancements will aid in delivery of always-on-always-connected computing where Ultrabooks stay connected when in standby mode, keeping the e-mail, social media and digital content up-to-date.
Looking further into the future, Otellini predicted that platform power innovation will reach levels that are difficult to imagine today. Intel’s researchers have created a chip that could allow a computer to power up on a solar cell the size of a postage stamp. Referred to as a “Near Threshold Voltage Core,” this Intel architecture research chip pushes the limits of transistor technology to tune power use to extremely low levels.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

Microsoft Windows 8 will be launched Q3 2012



win8 1



Microsoft is gearing up for Windows 8, the latest iteration in the vaunted operating system family. While the official launch is still a full year away, Microsoft is trying to generate a lot of attention for the next generation of Windows. The new operating system will have a smaller footprint and support tablets. Early tests show it’s faster than Windows 7 which should make it more palatable for ultralight computers and other mobile devices.


And that’s what Microsoft wants: an operating system that can span the breadth of computing products – desktop to mobile.


Publicly, Microsoft allies and analysts are talking positively about Windows 8’s prospects. Dell and HP are expected to launch ultralight and tablets on Windows 8. And Microsoft is looking for another enterprise hit to repeat the rapid sales of Windows 7.


Privately, enterprise decision-makers and analysts are saying they’re in no hurry to jump to Windows 8. From their perspective, they just finished upgrading to Windows 7. They spent years on Windows XP because of delays in the development of Windows Vista. And Vista was an unmitigated disaster in which few businesses completed a full adoption. Even Microsoft admits Vista damaged its Windows franchise.

Friday, October 14, 2011

Trends and drivers of the world in 2015



In the globally networked world of today even slight changes of influencing parameters can have a huge effect on the development of society. With the fast changing political scenery, the soaring economic development and ongoing leaps in technology, a forecast into the future is a risky undertaking. Nevertheless, as the future development of the world’s energy is one of the backbones of the global society, the need for reasonable planning is obvious. Utilities need to make long term investment decisions for their power generation portfolio as well as the transmission and distribution infrastructure, providers of alternative energy solutions seek a sound decision platform and, last but not least, industrial groups and their suppliers want to know where market and technological development will lead.
six prominent trends with strong influence on the upcoming needs of people and requirements of the industry. These trends address

  • Changes in the global society
  • Globalization
  • Energy industry restructuring
  • Primary energy concerns
  • Electrical energy needs
  • Environmental issues
Exponential population growth, falling mortality and fertility rates, a shift in the demographic balance between young and old, chronic poverty in much of the southern hemisphere, urbanization and the growth of mega-cities, mass migration within and between countries, the rising influence of religion in some cultures and growing secularism in others, and the worldwide impact of the digital and IT revolutions – these are all factors that are driving societies and individuals towards increasingly rapid change.

Sunday, October 2, 2011

when politics can influence on main economics


How much influence does the President (any President) really have on the economy? The answer according to most experts is "very little". And yet, we voters seem to have this opinion that politics and the economy go hand in hand.


A President's influence comes in two forms: monetary policy and tax policy. Both of these can "push" the economy up or down, but economic momentum tends to go where it wants regardless of who is in office. A president's influence on most specific economic factors, such as the Dow Jones average, is practically non-existent.
If a President has near God like control of the economy as the candidates want us to believe, then why would a President ever want the economy to go bad? The Communists had near total control of the economy, and every communist country has ended up with a economic disaster on their hands.
 President actually has some control over, although Congress ultimately has more control over the budget than the President does. Obviously the economy overall has more influence as well. Incomes have been going down the last four years, which means income taxes and consumer taxes collected has gone down. Almost every state in the country has had budget problems . Add to that the fact that spending continues to rise despite the complete lack of inflation, and the result is record setting deficits.Of the four charts, this is the most useful one, even though it should be pointed out
The bottom line is, we should not pick a President based on economic factors, even though that is most likely how most people will vote this year. Pick you candidate base on what economic programs they want to implement, or what social issues they support. The economy is going to do what it is going to do regardless of who is in office.

Friday, September 30, 2011

The Atucha II nuclear power plant in Argentina


El acto de puesta en marcha de la central Atucha II fue encabezado por la presidenta Cristina Kirchner. La central Atucha II aportará 745 megavatios al sistema interconectado nacional, y será la tercera del sistema eléctrico argentino, sumándose a Atucha I (335 Megavatios) y Embalse (600 Megavatios), que proveen actualmente el 7% de la energía eléctrica del país.  Foto: Télam
Argentina launched on Wednesday the final start-up phase for the country's third nuclear plant, as it expands its reliance on nuclear power just as Europe starts to shy away from this technology.

Construction on the Atucha II plant began in the early 1980s but it was disrupted for years, raised by goverments policies and interest , special in Menem ´s times in 1989  , finnancial issues to assist the development 

The plant will start producing energy in the second half of 2012 after a series of tests have been run, contributing 700 megawatts to the country's power grid. This will raise nuclear power generation to 10 percent of total capacity from 7 percent now.

"Our country nearly 40 years ago ... unveiled Atucha I, becoming the first Latin American country to operate a nuclear plant," President Cristina Fernandez said in a nationally televised speech on Wednesday.



Argentina's move is counter to action in Europe where countries such asGermany and Italy are moving away from nuclear power in part because of the tsunami damage to nuclear facilities in Japan.

Demand for energy has surged due to brisk economic growth since 2003, and the government has had to supplement local supplies with natural gas from Bolivia, diesel and fuel-oil imports and, increasingly, costly liquefied natural gas.

Energy shortages during the winter months often cool industrial production and economic activity and could prove an obstacle to longer-term growth, analysts say.
Work on Atucha II was revived in 2006 and the government has sunk $2.3 billion into the project, financed at least in part with money from the state pensions administrator, Anses.
Argentina aims to build a fourth nuclear plant, Atucha III, and construction on that would likely begin in late 2013,


  • Argentina has two nuclear reactors generating nearly one-tenth of its electricity. 
  • Its first commercial nuclear power reactor began operating in 1974. 
  • Completion of the country's third reactor is expected by early 2012. 
Electricity consumption in Argentina has grown strongly since 1990. Per capita consumption was just over 2000 kWh/yr in 2002 and rose to over 2600 kWh/yr in 2007. Gross electricity production in 2007 was 115 billion kWh, 54% of this from gas, 27% from hydro, 9.4% from oil, 2.2% from coal, and 6.3% (7.2 billion kWh) from nuclear. In 2008, nuclear power provided over 6.8 billion kWh of electricity – about 6.2% of total electricity generation.
Argentina's electricity production is largely privatised, and is regulated by ENRE (Ente Nacional Regulador de la Electricidad). Installed capacity is about 35 GWe, about 11% of which is from autoproducers and private generators.
CAREM reactor 
Another aspect of the 2006 plan was a move towards building a 27 MWe prototype of the CAREM reactor, and this is now reported to be at pre-construction stage in the northwestern Formosa province1. It is proposed that this prototype will be followed up with a 150 MWe version there.
Developed by CNEA and INVAP (Investigación Aplicada),d the CAREM nuclear reactor is a modular 100 MWt simplified pressurised water reactor with integral steam generators designed to be used for electricity generation (27 MWe net) or as a research reactor or for water desalination. Recent studies have explored scaling it up to 100 or 300 MWe. CAREM has its entire primary coolant system within the reactor pressure vessel, self-pressurised and relying entirely on convection. Fuel is standard 3.4% enriched PWR fuel, with burnable poison, and it is refuelled annually. It is a mature design which could be deployed within a decade.

Uranium resources

Argentine uranium resources listed in the Red Book2 total only about 15,000 tU, though the CNEA estimates that there is some 55,000 tU as "exploration targets" in several different geological environments. Uranium exploration and a little mining was carried out from the mid-1950s, but the last mine closed in 1997 for economic reasons. Cumulative national production until then from open pit and heap leaching at seven mines was 2509 tU.
However, there are plans to reopen the CNEA Sierra Pintada mine in Mendoza in the central west, which closed in1997. It is also known as the San Rafael mine and mill. Reserves there and at Cerro Solo in the south total less than 8000 tU. A resumption of uranium mining was part of the 2006 plan, in order to make the country self-sufficient.
In 2007, CNEA reached agreement with the Salta provincial government in the north of the country to reopen the Don Otto uranium mine, which operated intermittently from 1963 to 1981.  Block leaching is envisaged.
Australian-based Cauldron Energy Ltd holds leases over 16 km of outcropping uranium-copper mineralisation at Rio Colorado, Catamarca province. This was worked by CNEA in 1950s and 1960s, and Cauldron's exploration target is 6400 tU.

Fuel cycle

A 150 t/yr mill complex and refinery producing uranium dioxide operated by Dioxitek, a CNEA subsidiary, is at Córdoba.
CNEA has a small conversion plant at Pilcaniyeu, near Bariloche, Rio Negro, with 60 t/yr capacity.
Enrichment services are currently imported from the USA. Over 1983-89, INVAP operated a small (20,000 SWU/yr) diffusion enrichment plant for CNEA at Pilcaniyeu, in the Rio Negro province. This was unreliable and produced very little low-enriched uranium. In August 2006, CNEA said it that it wanted to recommission the enrichment plant, using its own Sigma advanced diffusion enrichment technology which is said to be competitive. The main reason given was to keep Argentina within the circle of countries recognised as having the right to operate enrichment plants, and thereby support INVAP's commercial prospects internationally. It was proposed to restart enrichment on a pilot scale in 2007 and work up to 3 million SWU/yr in three years but, as of 2010, it appears that commissioning will not begin until late 2011.
Production of fuel cladding is undertaken by CNEA subsidiaries. Fuel assemblies are supplied by CONAUR SA, also a CNEA subsidiary, located at the Ezeiza Centre near Buenos Aires. The fuel fabrication plant has a capacity of 150 t/yr for Atucha-type fuel and Candu fuel bundles.
Heavy water is produced by ENSI SE (Empresa Neuquina de Servicios de Ingeniería), which is jointly owned by CNEA and the Province of Neuquén where the 200 t/yr plant is located (at Arroyito). This was scaled to produce enough for Atucha 2 and the three following reactors, and so now has capacity for export.
There are no plans for reprocessing used fuel, though an experimental facility was run around in the early 1970s at Ezeiza.



Regulation and safety

In 1994, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) was formed and took over all regulatory functions from the National Board on Nuclear Regulation (Ente Nacional Regulador Nuclear, ENREN) and CNEA. As well as radiation protection, it is responsible for safety, licensing and safeguards. It reports to the President.

Non proliferation

Argentina is a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) since 1995 as a non-nuclear weapons state, and has been a party to the Tlatelolco Treatye since 1994. However, full-scope safeguards have operated since 1991 in conjunction with the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Argentina has not signed the Additional Protocol in relation to its safeguards agreements with the IAEA. The country is a member of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.

History :

Argentina has been one of the first countries worldwide to build up a nuclear infrastructure since the 1950s, focusing in the first years on R&D and different non-energy nuclear applications. Until the events in Fukushima, Japan on March 12th 2011, nuclear activities were not really in the centre of public debates, as they are seen, mainly by the political elite and some media, as a prestigious bridge to other high-tech-applications and essential part of scientific-technological progress - although Business sector is not deeply involved and military use or proliferation has never been a real issue. Nevertheless, Argentina’s three nuclear power plants only provide around 7 percent of the country’s national power production. After Fukushima, and in the context of possible financial restrictions in the coming years, the ambitious nuclear expansion plan presented by the government in 2010 of at least two more 700+ MW reactors seems less likely to be executed.
Nuclear activities have a long history in Argentina, starting with the creation of the CNEA, the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (the National Commission on Atomic Energy), through a presidential order issued by Juan Domingo Perón in his first presidency in 1950. The creation of the CNEA was part of wider initiative in investing in R&D and education as part of creating strong and wide scientific and technological capacities and knowledge as a base for industrialization and import substitution.

In its first years, the CNEA concentrated the scientific nuclear activities of various universities and focused on the development of a series of research centers and several research reactors. Up to now, the CNEA operates five of these research reactors in different parts of the country, one of the most important being the Atomic Centre in Ezeiza near Buenos Aires. On the other hand, the CNEA has developed, in its 60 years of existence, different research areas for nuclear applications in medicine, agriculture, food-radiation and also a centre for nanotechnology. Today, it also supports an observatory in an international research project on cosmic radiation.



Mining and Uranium Resources

In the early stages, the CNEA was also in charge of exploring and mining the Argentinian uranium reserves, mainly in the provinces of Mendoza, Salta, Córdoba and the southern province of Chubut, with the subsequent contamination impacts on the territories. In the 1990s, due to the US-Dollar parity of the national Peso, general production costs in Argentina soared, which together with cheaper uranium imports from international markets caused the shutdown of all uranium mining activities in Argentina. Only in the last years since the recovery (and flanked by a devaluated peso) new plans developed to reopen uranium mining activities within Argentina for domestic use, possibly in joint public-private ventures, and there are already exploration activities under way. The total Uranium reserves in Argentina are estimated by the IAEA at 7,080 metric tons, being the biggest Cerro Solo, in the southern Chubut province, and other older and problematic ones in Mendoza and Cordoba, New mining projects, like for example in the northern Jujuy province are, however, being firmly resisted by local civil society.

Large-Scale Nuclear Energy Production
There are two large-scale nuclear power plants that have been operating in Argentina since 1974 and 1984, respectively: the 335 MW plant Atucha I near Buenos Aires, and the 648 MW plant Embalse, near Cordoba.

The construction of a third, 750 MW reactor called Atucha II started in 1981, but lack of financing halted production various times until it was abandoned indefinitely in 1994, though by that time nearly 80 percent of the plant had been completed. The same year, 1994, CNEA transferred its responsibility for large-scale nuclear energy production and the administration of the two plants to Nucleoeléctrica Argentina SA (NASA), a limited company. This was not a casual coincidence with the new strategic economic orientation of the Menem-Administration, which aimed to drastically cut public spending, privatize and open up markets for imports and thus freeze any ambitions in national high-tech industries subsidized by the state. Plans of selling the shares of NASA to private investors - within in the broader privatization process of the whole energy branch in Argentina - apparently failed because of serious doubts about profitability. Therefore, the company today is still owned directly by the national ministry of energy, i.e. by the state, with up to 20 percent of the shares in the hands of the CNEA.

It was only in 2006 under the new, post-crisis government of president Nestor Kirchner, that a multi-billion Dollar investment-plan in nuclear energy was announced, mainly aimed at completing Atucha II and extending the life-cycle of the first two plants, Atucha I and Embalse. Partly following the spectacular economic recovery and the resulting needs for more electricity, this renaissance of the nuclear sector in Argentina had also a lot to do with, once again, a new strategic orientation in Argentine economic policies, based on more public spending to support demand, a low and competitive exchange rate for its currency, fuelling exports and import-substitution. As this strategy was aimed at reindustrializing the country, it was apparently widely accepted for such a huge amount of money to be poured into two 30-year-old plants which provide less than 10 percent of Argentina’s electricity supply - particularly as it also signaled a restrengthening of the public R&D sector and its academic institutions. Therefore, the argument for nuclear expansion is not only focused on securing an energy supply, but also, and ideologically perhaps more viable, on the added value of being a high-tech-industrial country which provides highly qualified jobs, supports a vast academic-scientific-technological infrastructure and thus secures and broadens technological-scientific sovereignty, with some potentials for the development of other technologies. This has recently been underlined again and again by president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, whose government announced, in 2010, further investments in the nuclear sector and the development of at least two new plants in the coming years in addition to extending support to support the three existing plants.


The CNEA also has subsidiary partner companies for fuel production, such as Cordoba-based DIOXITEK, which produces uranium dioxide for fuel assembly and cobalt 60 for medical applications. Fuel assembly is being done by CONUAR for Atucha I and Embalse, while other internal mechanical reactor elements are being built by FAE in the Atomic Centre of Ezeiza at the outskirts of Buenos Aires.


We are the leading country of peaceful use of nuclear energy, knowledge of the Argentine has never been used to destroy the lives of other human beings have always employed for peaceful purposes and also to generate economic growth, especially in health. The Argentines are people of peace, we are good people who [are in] a country that we have to include everyone. 
We are putting in place a machinery that was our country, which used to be a leader in all areas in Latin America, nuclear, aerospace, automotive, [and even said that] we have three Nobel Prize. Look what country we are. We have been responsible for what happened but I also think that perhaps some was not interested in such development chelates Argentina had nuclear or workers do not take the role they played in the national income. 
Back in setting up this machinery that has the best fuel we have, the Argentine people and their strength. We have to stand up, to make sure someone can never stop this machine, to continue to grow, to have more democracy, more equality, more justice, more homeland for all.


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As MSNBC.com's science editor, Alan Boyle runs a virtual curiosity shop of the physical sciences and space exploration, plus paleontology, archaeology and other ologies that strike his fancy. Since joining MSNBC.com in 1996, Boyle has won awards from the National Academies, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the National Association of Science Writers, the Society of Professional Journalists, the Space Frontier Foundation, the Pirelli Relativity Challenge and the CMU Cybersecurity Journalism Awards program. He is the author of "The Case for Pluto," a contributor to "A Field Guide for Science Writers," the blogger behind Cosmic Log: Bacteria can walk on 'legs' — and an occasional talking head on the MSNBC cable channel. During his 33 years of daily journalism in Cincinnati, Spokane and Seattle, he’s survived a hurricane, a volcanic eruption, a total solar eclipse and an earthquake. He has faith he'll survive the Internet as well. alanboyle@feedback.msnbc.com

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